CMOS Transimpedance Ampli er for Biosensor Signal Acquisition by Mark Ibrahim A thesis PMOS/lateral BJT devices and (b) in the subthreshold regime with an ap-plied control voltage V 4. "Sheet1" "99年下线晶片资料(完)" "更新日期:2010. Practical Cascode amplifier circuit. This lecture note covers the following topics: CMOS Technology and Passive Devices, MOS Models for Analog Design, MOS Small-Signal Models for Design , Electronic Noise, Electronic Noise, Noise Analysis, Amplifiers, Single-Ended and Differential OTA, Folded Cascode OTA, Common-Mode Feedback, Multistage Amplifiers, Comparators, MOS Sample and Hold, Biasing. 9 Noise 45 1. I am currently designing a cascode amplifier that is suppose to have a gain of 97. It includes a flip-flop, a broadband transimpedance preamplifier, a tuned 40-GHz clock buffer, and a 50-Ω output driver. 2 Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 35 1. The folded cascode is a very popular building block in CMOS amplifiers. An important property of folded cascode op-amps is the capability of handling input common mode levels close to one of the supply rails. 5 Output Resistance of an Emitter- Degenerated CE Amplifier 546 8. 3 Summary 7 Output stages 7. Farrokh Ayazi, Advisor Schematic of a gain-boosted folded-cascode OTA. However, the folded-cascode amplifier uses cascode transistors opposite in type from those used in the input stage. The much more common type that refers to the rail is called telescopic. 3 Slew Rate 6. Common-base stages are typically used in cascode or folded-cascode amplifiers, where a common-base stage is directly following a common-emitter amplifier. source is at aconstant potential, cascode can be used to keep thedrain potential constant, thus eliminating current in the capacitor. Output stages. df g g g g g v kT. Beryllium Oxide. Folded Cascode increases voltage overhead* F. o should be followed with a CS or CD stage (infinite load for cascode) o BJT cascodes are not useful. 1 Evolution of transistor output stages 7. Output Stage Topologies First Try: Simple Emitter Follower. A10 simplified folded-cascode, dc-bias, ssm gain, design; A11 op-mode & bias; A14 CS-CD amp design; A15 two-input CS amp, op-range, ssm; A16 CMOS OTA design with magic layout & sim; A17 effects of device output resistance (lambda) A18 op-modes and bias; A19 cascode current mirrors; A20 ssm resistances from A18; A21 ssm resistances from A18. For the BJT two-stage op amp: R 1 = 1 g m3 ||r 3||r 4||r o1||r o3 1 g m3 R 2 = r 6|| r o2|| r o4 r 6 and R 3 = r o6|| r o7 C 1 = C 3+C 4+C cs1+C cs3 C 2 = C 6+C cs2+C cs4 and C 3 = C L+C cs6+C cs7 Assuming the pole due to C 1 is much greater than the poles due to C 2 and C 3 gives, The locations for the two poles are given by the following. The circuit of the cascode amplifier is shown in Figure 1. Input configuration borrowed from LT 6240 opamp. Further more, since the first stage amplifier (the differential pair) connects to the drain-source pair of M4 and M7, it sees a low-impedance load. BANDGAP REFERENCE The Bandgap voltage reference operates by summing the emitter-base voltage (V BE) of the bipolar devices (BJT´s) and a voltage that is proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT). Common-base stages are typically used in cascode or folded-cascode amplifiers, where a common-base stage is directly following a common-emitter amplifier. While the C-B (common-base) amplifier is known for wider bandwidth than the C-E (common-emitter) configuration, the low input impedance (10s of Ω) of C-B is a limitation for many applications. RAY B ET AL: "A highly linear bipolar 1 V folded cascode 1. 4 Double Cascoding 555 8. 4(a) with the following specifications: Supply Voltage, V CC 5V 0-to-Peak Output Swing, V^ o 1V Voltage Gain, jA vj 25 Input. le is a possible implementation. In stead of using a folded cascode stage when running on a low supply voltage of 2. 1 Cascode Differential Pair Half circuit for ac analysis. 8 The Output Resistance of an Emitter-Degenerated CE Amplifier. MOS circuits: DC operation and analysis. The sig- nal frequency equivalent circuit of the input stage is illustrated in figure 2. Circuito 8 : CASCODE BJT amplificador de RF experimento de polarización 8. source with folded cascode 131 2x. to a regular cascode structure while output voltage requirements are similar to that of a single transistor. 1 An application: High-current, high-ratio current mirror 133 2x. The BiCMOS folded cascode amplifier in Figure 13. Fully Differential Amplifier Excluding Bias Circuits 48. Abstract A constant reference is a pivotal block in several mixed-signal and radio-frequency applications, like for instance, data converters, PPLs and power converters. A DSB NF is easier to measure; wideband excess noise is introduced at both the signal and image frequencies. What makes attractive of this design is its outstanding performance against the classic multistage designs aimed at achieving a large drive signal for output stages such as 300B, 6C4C/2A3, etc. Lecture 45 Telescopic cascode opamp frequency response 42. Which insulating material commonly used as a thermal conductor for some types of electronic devices is extremely toxic if broken or crushed and the particles are accidentally inhaled? C. Assume MOS transistor parameters as described in Problem 13. ECE 511 slides by Dr. Abstract: cherkassky Massana 2114 SRAM differential pair cascode folded cascode folded cascode second stage Text: these arrays, 9 3 differential pairs are joined at the load into nine amplifier triplets, each sharing , is negligible, since it is shared between three amplifier differential pairs. This page was last edited on 13 July 2018, at 07:00. Re: Biasing Fully Differential Amplifier with folded cascode Hi, For designing current mirrors, you should not use a ideal current source because you can get into trouble while replacing that current source. Design the common-emitter amplifier in Fig. 2 =(8/3)KT/(gm)) Low-noise is associated with large gm1 and relatively small gm2 and gm5 ∫ = + + BW 2 m1 2 mn 5 2 m1 2 2 2 2 m2 noise n1. There are three two-port networks. 4 The CB Circuit 543 8. SSB NF is the ratio of SNR at the desired output frequency (IF) to the SNR at input frequency (RF) measured in a Single Side Band. I 2 I 1 – I 2. Actually, Q5 and Q6 are not a current mirror, even though it sure looks like it. A summary of the properties of these structures, when all transistors operate in the saturation region, is given in Fig. Search Forums; These are JFETs, the thing i don't get is the cascode bias. The cascode amplifier will also be examined in detail along with several configurations of output stages, including the push-pull amplifier. source with folded cascode 131 2x. (BJT) input stage and achieved a 75-dB open loop gain. The idea of folding is that in a cascode differential amplifier the input device is replaced by the opposite type while still converting the input voltage to a current as shown in Figure below. The major thrust will be on CMOS circuits, but coverage will include some NMOS and BJT logic. Circuito 2. Diffamp DCtransfer. The cascode amplifier consists of common source (CS) and common gate (CG) configuration to achieve higher gain. Before the invention of the RF dual gate MOSFET, the BJT cascode amplifier could have been found in UHF (ultra high frequency) TV tuners. In the negative direction,. Calculations 1. (BJT) input stage and achieved a 75-dB open loop gain. The Folded Cascode CMOS Op Amp The 741 Op-Amp Circuit DC Analysis of the 741 Small-Signal Analysis Gain Frequency Response, Slew Rate Modern Techniques for the Design of BJT Op Amps 7. 1 An application: High-current, high-ratio current mirror. A folded cascode stage follows and the current is converted to an output voltage by a high voltage, JFET input, OPA552 opamp. 80 shows four possible realizations of the folded cascode amplifier. What makes attractive of this design is its outstanding performance against the classic multistage designs aimed at achieving a large drive signal for output stages such as 300B, 6C4C/2A3, etc. 2008-04-01: Folded cascode opamp-dc gain 2008-04-02 : Telescopic cascode opamp frequency response 2008-04-04 : Telescopic and folded cascode opamp-noise, mismatch, slew rate. The folded cascode based CSP made with combined mi- crowave BJT-JFET technology seems to be a good choice for this application. 6 The Folded Cascode. An important property of folded cascode op-amps is the capability of handling input common mode levels close to one of the supply rails. Analog circuits still play a crucial role in sensor signal acquisition due to the analog nature of sensory signal: they are indeed widely used in the sensor readout front-end, since it directly interfaces the sensor [10–12]. 2 MOS Current-Steering Circuits. Folded cascode with resistor load for the diff pair is shown below: Things to consider are: Resistor load provides less capacitance on the fold load at the cost of reduced gain of the diff pair stage. Rail-to-rail folded cascode topology with gain boosting OTA & supply independent biasing was designed. 14 Wilson Current Mirror Figure 6. A practical Cascode amplifier circuit based on FET is shown above. 6 The BJT Cascode. The small signal analysis is best done by the schematic analysis approach. Assume the current sources are ideal. ) Lecture 30 - Feedback Analysis. The principle is the same: the upper device (PNP) presents the lower device (NPN) with a low impedance such that the lower device develops no voltage gain. Lecture 23 - Folded-cascode: Lecture 24 - CMOS Op-Amp Frequency Response: Lecture 25 - CMOS Op-Amp Frequency Response and Compensation: Lecture 26 - Op-Amp Output Stages (Class A) Lecture 27 - Op-Amp Output Stages Class-B, AB: Lecture 28 - Op-Amp Output Stages (cont. So, yeah, overall similar to a SRM. Small Signal Model * Text book solves the Cascode amplifier using the small signal model. The PowerPoint PPT presentation: "Presentation on Design of Folded Cascode Operational Amplifier" is the property of its rightful owner. Razavi, "Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits", McGraw-Hill, 2001. Uranium Hexafluoride. 4(a) with the following specifications: Supply Voltage, V CC 5V 0-to-Peak Output Swing, V^ o 1V Voltage Gain, jA vj 25 Input. A narrowband folded cascode structure according to an embodiment of the invention is shown in FIG. BJT Basics Small Signal Model; CMOS Blocks / Subcircuits Current Mirrors; CG/CE Amplifiers; Cascode; Folded Cascode; The Opamp IC Design Flow IC Design Tools (EDA) Reference books. b) Differentiate between cascode and folded cascode configurations. 49 BJT Bipolar transistor. High Gain Low Power Operational Amplifier Design and Compensation Techniques Lisha Li Brigham Young University - Provo Follow this and additional works at:https://scholarsarchive. In stead of using a folded cascode stage when running on a low supply voltage of 2. The BiCMOS folded cascode amplifier in Figure 13. 1 Small-Signal Analysis 270. 1 Large Signal Equivalent Circuit 32 1. active load and a folded-cascode stage was adopted to obtain a high gain [24–26]. PMOS common gate load. What is the 7. available gain, max. determine its 3dB-frequency. A complete analysis of the circuit is presented in this paper which shows how this circuit leads to a high gain and resistance at output. 13 Problems 55. I am being asked to find the output resistance of following BJT cascode amplifier, from "Microelectronic Circuits" by Sedra and Smith, 7th edition, problem 8. These voltages are then buffered to the differential outputs OUT+ and OUT–. Kristofer S. A high performance BJT current source in a folded cascode configuration was conceived to achieve high output resistance, wide voltage swing and wide-band frequency response with low input voltage. A practical Cascode amplifier circuit based on FET is shown above. Settling time, open loop gain, power dissipation, bandwidth of operation, step response and noise analysis are the main features of this project. ECE 3111 Electronics (Revised) COURSE DESCRIPTION This course will cover the basics of the analog integrated circuits using Bipolar, MOS technologies. - Proyecto Transeptor 3. TUBE OPERATION 1 SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS, edited 2017. The marvelous CASCODE: V-V+ Q2 Q1 vout-RL + RS vS +-cascode ≡ a two-transistor configuration formed of a common-emitter/-source stage followed by a common-base/-gate stage The cascode is a very useful two-transistor stage that provides the performance of a common-emitter/-source stage with a much smaller Miller effect and much larger output. Collaboration is encouraged; copying is not. A comparison between the cascode and Folded-Cascode op amps is. 6 The Folded Cascode. Unformatted text preview: EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN MORE ON OP AMPS TELESCOPIC AND FOLDED CASCODE University of California Berkeley College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Robert W Brodersen Fall 2002 EECS140 Analog Circuit Design More on Op Amps TELESCOPIC and FOLDED CASCODE ROBERT W BRODERSEN LECTURE 22 EECS140 ANALOG CIRCUIT DESIGN MORE ON OP. Folded Cascode n-ch Input Architecture 35 Figure 3-3. lecture 46 Telescopic and folded cascode opamp-noise, mismatch, slew rate. Practical Cascode amplifier circuit. A high performance BJT current source in a folded cascode configuration was conceived to achieve high output resistance, wide voltage swing and wide-band frequency response with low input voltage. CMOS Transimpedance Ampli er for Biosensor Signal Acquisition by Mark Ibrahim A thesis PMOS/lateral BJT devices and (b) in the subthreshold regime with an ap-plied control voltage V 4. Double cascoding is possible in the MOS case only. The added load on the active device is negligible. Find PowerPoint Presentations and Slides using the power of XPowerPoint. I am committed to sharing my experience of the RAS 300 with other enthusiasts sharing my passion for perfection. Inoltre, a differenza della tecnologia MOS , collegando in serie più di due bipolari non si avranno ulteriori aumenti della resistenza di uscita. A folded cascode is not the appropriate topology if you want to design a rail-to-rail amplifier design. 12) Problem1: Figure 1 shows a differential cascode amplifier with an active load formed by a Wilson current mirror. The folded cascode. 3 BJT Circuits. - To design and study the characteristics of the cascode amplifier using BJTs. 25 ECE 3120 Microelectronics II Dr. The present invention provides a bandgap reference circuit. At first analysis, voltage common to IN+ and IN– does not produce a change in the current flow through Q1 or Q2 and thus produces no output voltage—it is rejected. Najmabadi, ECE102, Fall 2012 (17/17) Bias. The key to comparing voltage output swing specifications is to determine the amount of current that the amplifier is sinking or sourcing. Folded Cascode Op Amp. 35 μm SiGe BiCMOS process and in the particular process design kit (PDK). 1 Fully Differential Folded-Cascode Opamp 283. The Folded Cascode 6. I scraped the copper sheet with the edge of the scissors so it lies flush against the FR-4 with no air gaps. LECTURE 140 - SIMPLE OP AMPS (READING: Text-GHLM - 425-434, 453-454, AH - 249-253) INTRODUCTION The objective of this presentation is: 1. Such approach greatly simplifies the analysis. Kristofer S. Solution: (1)Current allocation (2)Overdrive voltage allocation (3)Aspect ratio calculation (4)Small-signal gain with minimal length (5)Iteration by increase M5/M1/M4 in turns. Why they are not biased in the constant current region, why there is no seperate bias to the cascode transistors may be from a resistor divider which i thought was very standard? Another question i have is about the cascode pair - is there any other. ) Prepare for the design of BJT op amps Outline • Simple BJT Op Amps Two-stage Folded-cascode • Summary Lecture 150 - Simple BJT Op Amps (1/28/04. Two Stage Bjt Amplifier. Double cascoding is possible in the MOS case only. Addition of diffusion noise terms. BJT -Bipolar jnuction transistor-negative and positive poles(npn,pnp) CASCODE AMPLIFIER DARLINGTON AMPLIFIER FOLDED DIPLOE PARABOLIC REFECTION. In any configuration, the use of the folded cascode architecture offers wide bandwidth. Suketu Naik 7. 1 The Basic MOSFET Current Source 7. Introduction. Both the cascode amplifier (in Figure 1) and the folded-cascode amplifier (in Figure 2) apply a differential common-base stage to the input differential pair. Push-Pull, Two-Stage Op Amp 6. Review of analog IC building blocks 2. BJT and MOS differential amplifiers. Note that on fully differential folded-cascode amplifiers, pole at node X doesn't exist any more. In BJT’s, flicker noise can increase significantly if the the of. Analog MOS Process Passive & Active Current Mirrors: Basic current mirrors, Cascode current mirror, Active loads, voltage. Charging the batteries has been painful enough for me to decide to look for alternative supplies. Design the common-emitter amplifier in Fig. Section 3 focuses on the design of Folded Cascode Gate Driven OTA and Folded Cascode Bulk Driven OTA; the simulations results obtained under and the discussion are provided in Section 4. The idea of folding is that in a cascode differential amplifier the input device is replaced by the opposite type while still converting the input voltage to a current as shown in Figure below. 2 MOS Current-Steering Circuits. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover JIAYU'S. Detailed Table of Contents 1 DIODES AND THE PN JUNCTION 1. • BJT Differential Amplifiers (cont'd) - Cascode differential amplifiers - Common‐mode rejection - Differential pair with active load EE105Spring 2008 Lecture23, Slide 1Prof. lecture 46 Telescopic and folded cascode opamp-noise, mismatch, slew rate. We can split the problem by considering the resistance seen looking "up". We will find A vo from small signal model. Assume that the BJT's have β-100 and that both the BJTs and the MOSFETs have V 5 V 21 21 Q2 BIAS 랑 랑 7% 21 21 BIAS BIAS Figure P8. Instructor. 1 The Two-Stage CMOS Op Amp 10. A narrowband folded cascode structure according to an embodiment of the invention is shown in FIG. 24: CG and Cascode Amplifiers Electronic Circuits 1 (13/2) Prof. 66-72 ISSN: 1744-2400. The solution is to precede the C-B stage by a low gain C-E stage which has moderately high input impedance (kΩs). The overall gain of the cascode amplifier can be increased if we can increased rds3. This diploma thesis describes design of a LWLP (low voltage and low 6. Circuito 6 : Cascode FET amplificador de video 6. The cascode amplifier can be viewed in different ways depending on your point of view. 1 An application: High-current, high-ratio current mirror. 1000 Threads found on edaboard. Calculations 1. A folded cascode stage follows and the current is converted to an output voltage by a high voltage, JFET input, OPA552 opamp. Ultra low voltage amplifier Figure 2 showsour OTA. 2 CMOS Cascode Amplifiers Amplification is an essential function in many analog circuits. 6 The Folded Cascode. 3 Output stage linearity. 3 The Body Effect 542 8. - Amplificador CASCODE con JFET 4. Instructor. ECE 5346/6346 VLSI Design Lectures/Topics 1. However, the solution and insight into Cascode amplifiers can be easily obtained using fundamental MOS. png 725 × 664; 32 KB. 5 The Cascode Amplifier 546 8. Common-emitter and emitter-follower amplifiers are the most widely used single-transistor amplifiers. df g g g g g v kT. The Cascode Amplifier (consider npn BJT version) Q 1 V Q 2 XX V IN V SS V OUT I B V CC • Actually a cascade of a CE stage followed by a CB stage but usually viewed as a “single-stage” structure • Cascode structure is widely used Review from Last Lecture. Figure 1: BJT cascode First, let's consider the common-emitter stage formed by Q2. Pui-In Mak, Miao Liu, Yaohua Zhao and R. ECE 3111 Electronics COURSE DESCRIPTION This course will cover the basics of the analog integrated circuits using Bipolar, MOS technologies. Folded cascode amplifiers - 7 I T i o M 1 M 2 M 3 M 4 M 5 M 6 M 7 M 8 M 9 M 10 M 11 + - I T I T V DD V SS V B3 + v o - C L v i1 v i2 V B2 V B1 V B4 CMOS Analog Design Using All-Region MOSFET Modeling 21 Output swing: 6 7 DD DSsat o SS DSsat V V V V V > > + For systematic offset 0. The CG or CB transistor in the cascode passes the current g m1 v i provided by the CS or CE transistor. com or else upload it on the website. 35 μm SiGe BiCMOS process and in the particular process design kit (PDK). A LOW-NOISE CMOS INTERFACE FOR CAPACITIVE MICROACCELEROMETERS Approved by: Dr. The circuit shows real measured resistor values. Two Stage Bjt Amplifier. Worksheet with more to be downloaded. At first analysis, voltage common to IN+ and IN– does not produce a change in the current flow through Q1 or Q2 and thus produces no output voltage—it is rejected. A practical Cascode amplifier circuit based on FET is shown above. This is limited by the voltage and dissipation limits of the ZTX558 p-channel transistor. View JIAYU GUO'S profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. 11 BJT Bandwidth and fT 140. For a fair comparison, let us compare. Assume the current sources are ideal. 2 CMOS Cascode Amplifiers Amplification is an essential function in many analog circuits. so we used a cascode current source High impedance current source means all of the small signal current goes to the load resistance, giving more SS voltage gain Department of EECS University of California, Berkeley EECS 105 Spring 2004, Lecture 34 Prof. While designing the operational Amplifier. cascade: the output of one amplifier stage is connected to the input of another amplifier stages, it's also connected in series. Includes relatively high-swing telescopic, and high-swing (rail - VDsat) folded cascode, bias circuits included. AGATA week. 2 1 5 1 2 1. Circuito 2. , telescopic, folded cascode), design parameters, as well as how well the closed loop opamp settles within the measured time. For the two-transistor cascode, two transistors should be biased through sufficient VDS in process, striking a lesser limit on the voltage supply. File nella categoria "Cascode" Questa categoria contiene 17 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 17. 12) Problem1: Figure 1 shows a differential cascode amplifier with an active load formed by a Wilson current mirror. It overcomes the Miller capacitance limitations of the common emitter amplifier by using a second transistor as common- base. "Sheet1" "99年下线晶片资料(完)" "更新日期:2010. − vin + Q2 Q1 vout − V + BIAS vx Figure 1: BJT cascode First, let’s consider the common-emitter stage formed by Q2. The cascode amplifier has high gain and high band width. mathematics, computer science, physics). of a full differential folded-cascode amplifier stage followed by a class AB output stage. Lecture 23 - Folded-cascode: Lecture 24 - CMOS Op-Amp Frequency Response : Lecture 25 - CMOS Op-Amp Frequency Response and Compensation : Lecture 26 - Op-Amp Output Stages (Class A) Lecture 27 - Op-Amp Output Stages Class-B, AB: Lecture 28 - Op-Amp Output Stages (cont. 7 The BJT Cascode 7. In order to obtain a large output voltage swing and a strong driving ability at the output stage, a rail-to-rail class AB output stage was implemented after the two-stage folded-cascode op amp circuit [27–29]. In order to obtain a large output voltage swing and a strong driving ability at the output stage, a rail-to-rail class AB output stage was implemented after the two-stage folded-cascode op amp circuit [27-29]. Pister [email protected] <-- easiest method of contact 512 Cory Hall - if my door is open, feel free to come in W 11-12, Th 4:30-5:30, or by email appointment. The whole opamp is likely to be complimentary. Folded Cascode Complementary Input Architecture 37 Figure 3-4. A high performance BJT current source in a folded cascode configuration is shown to achieve high output resistance, wide voltage swing and wide-band frequency response. a cascode is a combination of a common emitter stage cascaded with a common base stage. BJT Basics Small Signal Model; CMOS Blocks / Subcircuits Current Mirrors; CG/CE Amplifiers; Cascode; Folded Cascode; The Opamp IC Design Flow IC Design Tools (EDA) Reference books. 5 Simple folded cascode amplifier 10. 2 high swing current mirrors 13 4/18 4/20 Switched capacitors Presenting results; const­gm. A varactor diode was used as the tuning element. Opamp 7 - PMOS Input Diff Amp. 7 The BJT Cascode. Ultra low voltage amplifier Figure 2 showsour OTA. 2014 3 210. png 725 × 664; 32 KB. 8V power supply and simulated with Cadence Spectre. Pui-In Mak, Miao Liu, Yaohua Zhao and R. The folded cascode PCBs. See attached circuit image. A summary of the properties of these structures, when all transistors operate in the saturation region, is given in Fig. Folded Cascode Op Amp Needs CMFB Circuit for V. Specifications: VDD = 3V, differential output swing = 3V, Power dissipation = 10mW, voltage gain = 2000. 3 Summary 7 Output stages 7. Small-Signal Analysis of a Differential Two-Stage Folded-Cascode CMOS Op Amp Sang Dae Yu Abstract—Using a simplified high-frequency small-signal equivalent circuit model for BSIM3 MOSFET, the fully differential two-stage folded-cascode CMOS operational amplifier is analyzed to obtain its small-signal voltage transfer function. 2 Small Signal Equivalent Circuit 35 1. 3 BJT Circuits. The input signal is put onto the base of the left BJT, while the output signal is taken from the collector of the right BJT. Folded cascode Switched capacitors ADCs and DACS Final Project Lab5 hw9 6. A Cascode Current Source 6. Previous Post D *8. Text book introduces G m method to simplify the analysis. So, yeah, overall similar to a SRM. of a full differential folded-cascode amplifier stage followed by a class AB output stage. 5 The Folded Cascode biasing techniques then each BJT need have only about half the breakdown voltage of a single-BJT amplifier. Hence, the noise in this stage is the domi- nant noise mechanism in the amplifier, and we will therefore confine our analysis to the cascode input stage and the associated biasing circuitry. BJT operation: DC and high frequency inclusive of diffusion and space charge effects. Diffamp DCtransfer. Part 1: The World's Simplest op Amp; Part 2: The Folded Cascode Op Amp; Part 3: SPICE Demo 2; Problem Set 8 (Due: 7 November 2017) Problem Set 8 Solution; October 31. Q3 is PNP while R4 loads it and folds over to GND. o should be followed with a CS or CD stage (infinite load for cascode) o BJT cascodes are not useful. The Folded Cascode 6. Use RF or microwave transistors for best high frequency response. Analysis And Design of Small Signal Low Frequency BJT Amplifiers: Review of transistor biasing, Classification of Amplifiers – Distortion in amplifiers, Analysis of CE, CC, and CB Amplifiers and CE Amplifier with emitter resistance, low frequency response of BJT Amplifiers, effect of coupling and bypass capacitors, Design of single stage RC. 3 Distribution of Voltage Gain in a Cascode Amplifier 552 8. CMOS active-cascode gain stage: (a) simplified circuit diagram and (b) Bode plot of the output impedance. The load capacitance is 1pF. Electronic Circuit Analysis Notes Pdf- ECA Notes Pdf. 21 Input and Gain Stage for Single-Ended Output Folded Cascode Op-Amp. 1 3 16 ( ) + +. - Proyecto Transeptor 3. 35 UM Mixed-Signal 2P4M Polycide 3. Biasing, references and regulators 3. A high performance BJT current source in a folded cascode configuration was conceived to achieve high output resistance, wide voltage swing and wide-band frequency response with low input voltage. LECTURE 150 - SIMPLE BJT OP AMPS (READING: Text-GHLM - 425-434, 453-454, AH - 249-253) INTRODUCTION The objective of this presentation is: 1. The folded cascode is a very popular building block in CMOS amplifiers. (BJT) input stage and achieved a 75-dB open loop gain. Introduction to feedback theory, amplifier topologies. Compared with just a PNP at the output, the advantage of using the compound pair is that the output current is much closer to the reference current. 8 Common-Mode. T in the positive direction. BANDGAP REFERENCE The Bandgap voltage reference operates by summing the emitter-base voltage (V BE) of the bipolar devices (BJT´s) and a voltage that is proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT). BJT Cascode Small-signal Circuit. without the second stage you now have a single stage system so you will have higher phase margin. Frequency response. Pass Laboratories 13395 New Airport Road, Ste G Auburn, CA 95602 (530) 878 5350 March 19th, 5:00pm PDT. 4 Folded-Cascode Opamp 268. Circuito 6 : Cascode FET amplificador de video 6. ) Illustrate the analysis of BJT and CMOS op amps 2. Smith Totem Pole Voltage Supply DC voltages must be set for the cascode current. Circuito 2. 1 CHAPTER 10 OPERATIONAL-AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS Chapter Outline 10. Compesantion and frequency response. This calculator computes bias voltage and current levels, as well as gain and frequency response for the Cascode amplifier. The folded cascode is a very popular building block in CMOS amplifiers. The folded topology of FIG. The following topics will be emphasized: Bipolar and MOS transistor. Download ECA Unit - 4. The output common- mode voltage is not controlled by the input. First Stage Amplifier Design 45 Figure 3-7. 46: For and using it is required to design the circuit of Fig. The BJT may appear to be more linear because its impedance is significantly lower. DCtransfer. Folded Cascode Op Amp. active load and a folded-cascode stage was adopted to obtain a high gain [24–26]. Multistage amplifiers; Output stages. Double cascoding is possible in the MOS case only. Noise level for the folded-cascode OTA Lets consider thermal noise (vn. Re: Gain and Phase Margin (Folded Cascode when you had a 2 stage design, you need to set any one of the pole the dominant, so you need to add a compensation cap this would have lower phase margin. of a full differential folded-cascode amplifier stage followed by a class AB output stage. Through voltages simulations, it was shown that the OP a mplifier is able to operate. Cascode amplifier While the C-B amplifier is known for wider bandwidth than the C-E configuration, the low input impedance (10s of Ω) of C-B is a limitation for many applications. Fig 1, Vacuum diode internal structure, A, B, C show basics of tube diode Ia flow. Lecture 44 Folded cascode opamp-dc gain 41. 3 BJT Circuits. BJT operation: DC and high frequency inclusive of diffusion and space charge effects. Opamp 8 - Opamp 7 with npn cascode BJT devices. The CG or CB transistor in the cascode passes the current g m1 v i provided by the CS or CE transistor. R1 can be omitted. One way of looking at it is that the cascode transistor is simply that it passes the current through the emitter to its collector (less some base current) while preventing the emitter from moving, which is the important point. Let I = 100 μA, and assume that the MOSFETs are operating at VOV = 0. Output Stage Amplifier Design 47 Figure 3-8. 46: Design the basic BJT differential amplifier circuit of Fig. However, the large number of transistors in the stack between the power-supply rails results in the disadvantages of a severely limited output-signal swing. Rrefhlim (reference high limit) forbids very low reference current. 14 Wilson Current Mirror Figure 6. The cascode device can be either a BJT or another JFET. If the cascode device is a BJT, some noise will be added as a result of base current noise flowing from the base to the cascode reference voltage. Differential and common-mode voltage gain for double-ended and single-ended outputs 7. Finally, we will cover. The small signal analysis is best done by the schematic analysis approach. Q 1 is biased with I 1 −I 2 Q 2 is biased with I 2 Folded cascode avoids stacking too many transistors vertically, which will be difficult for low power supply voltage V DD. TUBE OPERATION 1 SMALL SIGNAL AMPLIFIERS, edited 2017. We analyzed the equivalent circuit model of the CMUT element operating in the receiving. File nella categoria "Cascode" Questa categoria contiene 17 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 17. 10 Layout of Transistors 49 1. File nella categoria "Cascode" Questa categoria contiene 17 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 17. Rail-to-rail folded cascode topology with gain boosting OTA & supply independent biasing was designed. mmWave amplifier design (Max. Specifications: VDD = 3V, differential output swing = 3V, Power dissipation = 10mW, voltage gain = 2000. Still I wonder whether this one couldn't be hacked with external compensation and maybe the output run out into a folded cascode and buffer stage… but perhaps adding an external input and output stage to one of the more conventional parts instead would work out better in the end. The primary objective of this text remains the development of the student's ability to analyze and design electronic circuits, both analog and digital, discrete and integrated. With a folded cascode, the gain is in the order of (gm*ro)^2. What is the 7. Input configuration borrowed from LT 6240 opamp. GATE Preparation, nptel video lecture dvd, electronics-and-communication-engineering, electronic-circuits--i, bimos-cascode-amplifier, Rectifiers, filters , DC Load line, Load line , operating point, Bipolar Junction Transistor , biasing methods for BJT, BJT Design Stability, Bias compensation , Thermal stability, biasing , biasing for JFET, Junction field effect Transistor , biasing for. Built on Adel S. The cascode amplifier has high gain and high band width. Part 2: The Folded Cascode Op Amp. BJT Amplifiers: Units of gain, CE amplifier- Biasing techniques - stabilization of operating point –compensation techniques- low frequency equivalent circuits - r-parameters, h-parameters Methods of coupling - D. Read LTspice DCsweep - LabVIEW. For each circuit determine R in, Ro, and Av o. CONFIGURACIÓN CASCODE BJT El cascodo es una de dos etapas del amplificador compuesto de una transconductancia amplificador seguido de un tampón actual. Folded cascode is used because. 5 Simple folded cascode amplifier 10. Najmabadi, ECE102, Fall 2012 (17/17) Bias. Practical Cascode amplifier circuit. The analysis and design of cascode amplifier hence will start with the MOS device physics, analysis and design CS stage. Smith Totem Pole Voltage Supply DC voltages must be set for the cascode current. 4(a) with the following specifications: Supply Voltage, V CC 5V -to-Peak Output Swing, V^ o 1V Voltage Gain, jA vj 25 Input. A LOW-NOISE CMOS INTERFACE FOR CAPACITIVE MICROACCELEROMETERS A Dissertation Presented to in the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology December 2009. 5 Simple folded cascode amplifier 10. Nel caso di una realizzazione in BJT, chiamata R0 la resistenza di uscita dei transistor, si dimostra che la resistenza di uscita del cascode diventa βR0. This is a balanced amp with a BJT Folded Cascode with CCS using 6SN7GTB outputs similar to an older Stax SRM-T1 with CCS in place of the output resistors. In the latter case, the BJT must be the upper transistor, otherwise the (lower) BJT will always saturate, [citation needed] unless extraordinary steps are taken to bias it. Single stage MOS amplifiers, circuit design, DC and small signal analysis. 4(a) with the following specifications: Supply Voltage, V CC 5V -to-Peak Output Swing, V^ o 1V Voltage Gain, jA vj 25 Input. The cascode amplifier consists of common source (CS) and common gate (CG) configuration to achieve higher gain. 2 PSRR, CMRR 6. C coupled amplifier - CE RC coupled amplifier - concept of load lines- loading effect at the input and output - emitter follower as. Previous Post D *8. 1 SPICEDeviceModels B-3 2. It was initially proposed in that a single bipolar junction transistor (BJT) device, as shown in Figure 4, However, the level of any opamp's thermal dependency is subject to its architecture (e. Diff Amp - Single Ended. Q3 is PNP while R4 loads it and folds over to GND. Joyful season arc fault circuit breaker williams electric 5103395601 oakland above left series wiring of cells compared to parallel wiring right. Small-Signal Analysis of a Differential Two-Stage Folded-Cascode CMOS Op Amp Sang Dae Yu Abstract—Using a simplified high-frequency small-signal equivalent circuit model for BSIM3 MOSFET, the fully differential two-stage folded-cascode CMOS operational amplifier is analyzed to obtain its small-signal voltage transfer function. Let I = 100 μA, and assume that the MOSFETs are operating at VOV = 0. df g g g g g v kT. While designing the operational Amplifier. The folded topology of FIG. This basic idea can be implemented in the folded-cascode scheme by replacing the current generator M2-R2 with an input-driven active load ("active load" solution, Fig. 3 Slew Rate 6. What makes attractive of this design is its outstanding performance against the classic multistage designs aimed at achieving a large drive signal for output stages such as 300B, 6C4C/2A3, etc. 4 DC Analysis of the Small-Signal Analysis of the Gain, Frequency Response, and Slew Rate of the Modern Techniques for the Design of BJT Op Amp NTUEE Electronics L. In Rush's cascode, the signal enters a lower PNP base, collector is grounded. Biasing, references and regulators 3. The difference here is that the signal current g m v i is folded down and made to flow into the source terminal of Q 2, which gives the circuit the name folded cascode. 4 IC Biasing—Current Sources, Current Mirrors, and Current-Steering Circuits 7. Lecture 8 Videos. BJT Cascode Small-signal Circuit. 2 The MOS Cascode Amplifier 547 8. Ernest So and Yinuo Xu, "Fully Differential Gain-Boosted Folded Cascode OTA for Switched Capacitor Applications" Sun-Jin Kim, "A Low Power High Speed OTA" Winter 2016 Winners: George Alexopolous and Siavash Kananian, "A CMOS Level-Shifted Regulated Cascode Transimpedance Amplifier" Junkyo Suh and Arjun Seshadri, "Wideband Transimpedance Amplifier". I am being asked to find the output resistance of following BJT cascode amplifier, from "Microelectronic Circuits" by Sedra and Smith, 7th edition, problem 8. 3 Low Supply Voltage Opamps 286. At input terminals self cascode is not used but on rest of the circuits self cascode is used because this whole circuit works as load. Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits (4th Edition) Amazon. For the BJT two-stage op amp: R 1 = 1 g m3 ||r 3||r 4||r o1||r o3 1 g m3 R 2 = r 6|| r o2|| r o4 r 6 and R 3 = r o6|| r o7 C 1 = C 3+C 4+C cs1+C cs3 C 2 = C 6+C cs2+C cs4 and C 3 = C L+C cs6+C cs7 Assuming the pole due to C 1 is much greater than the poles due to C 2 and C 3 gives, The locations for the two poles are given by the following. Specifications: VDD = 3V, differential output swing = 3V, Power dissipation = 10mW, voltage gain = 2000. A Cascode Current Source 6. df g g g g g v kT. In a folded cascode forget about Q3 connect the base of Q4 directly to Q2. However, the folded-cascode amplifier uses cascode transistors opposite in type from those used in the input stage. 24 April 2020. Double Cascoding 6. folded cascode topologies are depicted in figure 2. Solution: (1)Current allocation (2)Overdrive voltage allocation (3)Aspect ratio calculation (4)Small-signal gain with minimal length (5)Iteration by increase M5/M1/M4 in turns. 4 IC Biasing Biasing in Integrated-Circuit (IC) design is based on the use of constant-current sources Goal: create stable constant-current source On an IC chip with a number of amplifier stages, a. Amplitude modulation is defined as the process in which is the amplitude of the carrier wave is varied about a means values linearly with the base band signal. folded cascode topologies are depicted in figure 2. lecture 46 Telescopic and folded cascode opamp-noise, mismatch, slew rate. Read LTspice DCsweep - LabVIEW. Send your Analog Electronics assignments at [email protected] 2 PSRR, CMRR 6. CMOS and BJT Transistor Theories 2. 5 The Folded Cascode 555 8. 7 The BJT Cascode. 22 Result of strike to PFET Input Transistor at the output of the circuit in Fig IV-21, Peeled/DTF vs Baseline, configured for gain of 10 V/V. 66-72 ISSN: 1744-2400. FEEDBACK AMPLIFIERS. Pister [email protected] <-- easiest method of contact 512 Cory Hall - if my door is open, feel free to come in W 11-12, Th 4:30-5:30, or by email appointment. Folded Cascode Double Cascode With BJT, CE + CB Cascode. a history without any values. ; ctronics 113111v Build this high -efficiency HANDI-TALKIE for business or amateur- communications Build our REFLEX TESTER and find out just how fast you are! How to use the 555 TIMER CHIP to build oscillator circuits Build a 250 -WATT POWER INVERTER to supply 120 volts AC from 12 volts DC! Use our PC -BASED TEST BENCH to identify and test. Difference Between Rc Coupled And Direct Coupled Amplifier. 35 μm SiGe BiCMOS process and in the particular process design kit (PDK). 20 Folded Gain-boosted. 8 The Emitter-Input Differential Amplifier 133 2x. Razavi, "Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits", McGraw-Hill, 2001. The idea of folding is that in a cascode differential amplifier the input device is replaced by the opposite type while still converting the input voltage to a current as shown in Figure below. These voltages are then buffered to the differential outputs OUT+ and OUT–. 2 PSRR, CMRR 6. Hi As post-2 says, the cascode extends frequency response by shielding the lower Q from the load, keeping the collector voltage for the lower Q nearly constant so it has effectively wider bandwidth. In order to obtain a large output voltage swing and a strong driving ability at the output stage, a rail-to-rail class AB output stage was implemented after the two-stage folded-cascode op amp circuit [27-29]. Lecture 22 – Compensation of Op Amps (6/24/14) Page 22-10 For the BJT two-stage op amp: R 1 = 1 g m3. min, Y opt, noise circles). Worksheet with more to be downloaded. The whole point of this open loop discrete design is to prevent the issues present when using an opamp for I/V conversion. However, the folded-cascode amplifier uses cascode transistors opposite in type from those used in the input stage. The proposed operational amplifier (op amp) consists of a full differential folded-cascode amplifier stage followed by a class AB output stage. Problem Set 8 (Due: 11/12) Problem Set 8 Solution. View and Download PowerPoint Presentations on Current Source And Current Mirror Circuits PPT. 9 emitter volts equal a forward bias of 0. Circuito 6 : Cascode FET amplificador de video 6. To simplify the analyses in the following, it is assumed that n = m = 1 in all flicker-noise equations. Folded Cascode Double Cascode With BJT, CE + CB Cascode. For the BJT two-stage op amp: R 1 = 1 g m3 ||r 3||r 4||r o1||r o3 1 g m3 R 2 = r 6|| r o2|| r o4 r 6 and R 3 = r o6|| r o7 C 1 = C 3+C 4+C cs1+C cs3 C 2 = C 6+C cs2+C cs4 and C 3 = C L+C cs6+C cs7 Assuming the pole due to C 1 is much greater than the poles due to C 2 and C 3 gives, The locations for the two poles are given by the following. a cascode is a combination of a common emitter stage cascaded with a common base stage. CMOS operational amplifier, folded-cascode, telescopic-cascode, operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), high-performance, low-voltage, and high-speed CMOS Opamp. Suketu Naik 7. Pister [email protected] <-- easiest method of contact 512 Cory Hall - if my door is open, feel free to come in W 11-12, Th 4:30-5:30, or by email appointment. ATLCE - A4 01/03/2016. The low source , analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The idea of folding is that in a cascode differential amplifier the input device is replaced by the opposite type while still converting the input voltage to a current as shown in Figure below. Common-base stages are typically used in cascode or folded-cascode amplifiers, where a common-base stage is directly following a common-emitter amplifier. Simple Current Mirror, Cascode, Widlar, and Wilson Current Mirrors. Double transistor circuits: cascoded transistors (single, active, double and folded), wideband Darlington configuration, wideband buffered amplifiers. Basic Amplifiers: High Frequency Analysis Frequency Analysis Dominant Pole Approach. I 1 - I 2 NMOS CS stage Biased with I 1 - I 2. 25( g m ro ) 2 Ro = r o Low voltage headroom (VDD across 4 MOS) o Folded cascodes solve this. Germanium transistors will have a forward base/emitter bias voltage of 0. Transistor pairs Cascode current sink MOS cascode amplifiers BJT cascode amplifiers Folded cascode. 2 Driver stages for the output stage 7. EXPRIMENT 4 CASCODE BJT AMPLIFIER (SIMULATION) I. 11 Caprio's quad with folded cascode - I; 2x. ), conventionally characterized for dual supplies, to single-supply operation. - Receptor de RF 5. An active antenna that would provide coverage of the entire 40 meter Amateur Radio and 41 meter Shortwave band was designed. 4 The CB Circuit 543 8. A comparison between the cascode and Folded-Cascode op amps is. The low source , analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). PROPOSED FOLDED CASCODE OTA The Proposed Folded Cascode OTA is shown in figure2. folded cascode topologies are depicted in figure 2. CONFIGURACIÓN CASCODE BJT El cascodo es una de dos etapas del amplificador compuesto de una transconductancia amplificador seguido de un tampón actual. In stead of using a folded cascode stage when running on a low supply voltage of 2. This hybrid circuit is actually a folded cascode if we consider the book terminology. BJT Amplifiers: Units of gain, CE amplifier- Biasing techniques - stabilization of operating point –compensation techniques- low frequency equivalent circuits - r-parameters, h-parameters Methods of coupling - D. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. 4 Folded cascode topologies output noise spectral density. a present history of values c. The cascode is a two-stage amplifier that consists of a common-emitter stage feeding into a common-base stage. 5 Simple folded cascode amplifier 10. US20120043955A1 US13/155,392 US201113155392A US2012043955A1 US 20120043955 A1 US20120043955 A1 US 20120043955A1 US 201113155392 A US201113155392 A US 201113155392A US 2012043955 A1 US2012043955 A1 US 2012043955A1 Authority US United States Prior art keywords current bandgap reference resistor op bjt Prior art date 2010-08-18 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal. CMOS operational amplifier, folded-cascode, telescopic-cascode, operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), high-performance, low-voltage, and high-speed CMOS Opamp. We will find A vo from small signal model. Resistors R4 and R5 form a voltage divider biasing network for the FET Q2. (In “olden days” the cascode amplifier was a cascade of grounded cathode and grounded grid vacuum tube stages – hence the name “cascode,” which has persisted in modern terminology. Send your Analog Electronics assignments at [email protected] A high performance BJT current source in a folded cascode configuration was conceived to achieve high output resistance, wide voltage swing and wide-band frequency response with low input voltage. BJT and MOS differential amplifiers. 8 The Output Resistance of an Emitter-Degenerated CE Amplifier. Further more, since the first stage amplifier (the differential pair) connects to the drain-source pair of M4 and M7, it sees a low-impedance load. Frequency Analysis 2/22/2011 Insoo Kim (cont'd) Frequency Analysis. The basic folded cascode scheme shows a significant linearity error (5. This means that the impedance of M2 and M4 will be amplified by the cascode thus effectively forming a cascoded current source with high output impedance (low output conductance). 22 Result of strike to PFET Input Transistor at the output of the circuit in Fig IV-21, Peeled/DTF vs Baseline, configured for gain of 10 V/V. However, the solution and insight into Cascode amplifiers can be easily obtained using fundamental MOS. Opamp 7 - PMOS Input Diff Amp. BANDGAP REFERENCE The Bandgap voltage reference operates by summing the emitter-base voltage (V BE) of the bipolar devices (BJT´s) and a voltage that is proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT). A folded cascode stage follows and the current is converted to an output voltage by a high voltage, JFET input, OPA552 opamp. Meeting 8 Tuesday 5 November: top next previous: AGENDA. The load capacitance is 1pF. 2 PSRR, CMRR 6. Rrefllim (reference low limit) prevents NPN's Vce from going lower than about 1. The maximum power dissipated in the circuit is to be limited to 10 mW. 4 Double Cascoding 555 8. Sedra and K. Online Version with 4 stages. Two Stage Bjt Amplifier. Practical Cascode amplifier circuit. Electronics: Basic, Analog, and Digital with PSpice does more than just make unsubstantiated assertions about electronics. The circuit shows real measured resistor values. However, the folded-cascode amplifier uses cascode transistors opposite in type from those used in the input stage. 24: CG and Cascode Amplifiers Electronic Circuits 1 (13/2) Prof. A high performance BJT current source in a folded cascode configuration is shown to achieve high output resistance, wide voltage swing and wide-band frequency response. ECE 511 slides by Dr. Figure 4 shows its low frequency small signal equivalent circuit and its two-port representations and port variables assignment. Operational Amplifiers: OpAmp architectures, two-stage and folded cascode amplifiers, DC and small signal parameters, frequency response, slew rate - 20% Each student must pursue his or her academic goals honestly and be personally accountable for all submitted. The BJT is cascoded by a rugged industrial power MosFet IXFN32N120P. The design employs dual pnp-npn current mirrors for current feedback between the base and the emitter in order to maintain the constant collector current. 12" "若内容有任何问题,请与简珮君小姐联络(分机205)" "制程代号" "D35: TSMC 0. Double transistor circuits: cascoded transistors (single, active, double and folded), wideband Darlington configuration, wideband buffered amplifiers. I 1 - I 2 NMOS CS stage Biased with I 1 - I 2. active load and a folded-cascode stage was adopted to obtain a high gain [24–26]. 10 Noise: Basic Noise Properties, Noise Spectra, Noise Types, Noise Models of Semiconductor Devices, Noise Dynamics, An Op Amp Circuit Example, Noise in CMOS Differential Stages, Noise. The cascode amplifier will meet all of these criteria. Kristofer S. What is the 7. Gray Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits Amazon. Lecture 44 Folded cascode opamp-dc gain 41. I am committed to sharing my experience of the RAS 300 with other enthusiasts sharing my passion for perfection. To simplify the analyses in the following, it is assumed that n = m = 1 in all flicker-noise equations. • OTA has maximum gain in SS corner and -40 ͦ C and minimum gain about 400 in SF corner and 120 ͦ C and in typical corner the gain is laid between them. 4(a) with the following specifications:. - The technological process includes 14 photolithography operations, 8 ion doping ones and has a block structure, - Two-level metallization. Electronic Circuit Analysis – ECA Questions and Answers pdf :-Course syllabus: (JNTU) :-UNIT-1: Single Stage Amplifiers :-Classification of Amplifiers—Distortion in Amplifiers, Analysis of CE, CC, and CB Configuration with simplified Hybrid Model, Analysis of CE amplifier with Emitter resistance and Emitter follower, Millers theorem and its dual, Design of single stage RC Coupled Amplifier. In this "high-swing" amplifier, the transistors are biased such that V,,t can swing % closer to either rail, as illustrated in the. Common-emitter and emitter-follower amplifiers are the most widely used single-transistor amplifiers. Single stage MOS amplifiers, circuit design, DC and small signal analysis.